The Clean Water Act (CWA) specifies that a "pollutant" cannot be discharged from a point source into the "navigable waters of the U.S. without a federal permit from the EPA. In 2006, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled that that discharge of water containing pollutants from one distinct water body to another constitutes the addition of a pollutant under the CWA that requires a permit. Catskill Mountains Chapter of Trout Unlimited, Inc., et al. v. City of New York, 451 F.3d 77 (2d Cir. 2006). But, in 2008, the EPA developed a regulation (78 Fed. Reg. 33697 (Jun. 13, 2008)) that excluded water transfers from the permit requirements of the CWA. The rationale behind the rule was couched in the "unitary waters" interpretation that had been previously adopted by the U.S. Supreme Court. The U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit upheld the regulation in 2010 as a reasonable interpretation of the statute which requires an "addition" of a pollutant before a permit is required. Friends of the Everglades, et al. v. South Florida Water Management District, et al., 570 F.3d 1210 (11th Cir. 2009), reh'g., den. 605 F.3d 692 (11th Cir. 2010), cert., den., 131 S. Ct. 643 (2010). But, in this case, the federal district court for the Southern District of New York, reached a different conclusion The court vacated the rule, siding with various environmental groups that had brought the case, on the basis that the rule violated the Supreme Court's plurality opinion in Rapanos v. United States, 547 U.S. 715 (2006). The district court said that the type of water transfers subject to the rule were "navigable waters" under any of the various interpretations of CWA jurisdiction espoused by the Supreme Court in Rapanos. Thus, the district court vacated the rule insomuch as the phrase "navigable waters" was interpreted by the Supreme Court. The trial court remanded the rule to the EPA, with instructions for the EPA to provide additional explanation with respect to its interpretation of the rule. The case is important to crop irrigation agriculture and many water management projects. Catskill Mountains Chapter of Trout Unlimited, Inc., et al. v. United States Environmental Protection Agency, et al., No. 08-CV-5606 (KMK), 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 42535 (S.D. N.Y. Mar. 28, 2014).